Er segelte noch Meilen ostwärts, aber eine Meuterei zwang ihn zur Umkehr. Am 8. Juli beginnt Vasco da Gama's historische Reise mit einer Flotte von. Vasco da Gama, ein portugiesischer Seefahrer und Entdecker, lebte von bis ✓ Lebensdaten, ✓ Biografie und ✓ Steckbrief auf sprawdzone.eu Der portugiesische Seefahrer Vasco da Gama sticht am 8. Juli in See. Er soll im Auftrag des portugiesischen Königs die "Gewürzroute" von Europa nach. Januar um April Mombasawo arabische Kaufleute versuchten, seine Weiterfahrt zu verhindern. Gleichzeitig wurden jedoch die Voraussetzungen geschaffen, dass Vasco da Gama in den Hochadel aufsteigen konnte. Mai landete Vasco da Gama nahe Calicut an der Malabarküste. Aber im Jahre stellte Vasco da Gama beim König auch den offiziellen Antrag, mit seiner Familie Portugal verlassen zu tipp24 com lotto, was von vielen seiner Zeitgenossen als ein Übertritt auf die Seite Kastiliens interpretiert wurde. Weiter geht es an der ostafrikanischen Küste, dann über den Indischen Ozean. Der ostafrikanischen Küste folgend erreichte er am 7. Die Portugiesen casino next to pala die gegnerische Flotte fast vollständig vernichten. Vermutlich ist er um in Sines geboren worden. Nach mehr als zehn Monaten, am Die Familie seines Vaters stammte aus dem casino 777 telephone Alentejowar ursprünglich mit dem Ritterorden von Avis verbunden und wechselte erst später zum Ritterorden von Santiago. Vasco da Gama hatte ernste Probleme seine billigen und primitiven Artikel wie Spiegel und Glasperlen zu verkaufen. Vervielfältigung nur mit schriftlicher Genehmigung. Mit zum Teil erzwungenen Handelsverträgen, Privilegien gegenüber verbündeten indischen Fürsten sowie einer permanenten Flottenpräsenz begann er Portugal recht schnell das Monopol im europäischen Gewürzhandel zu sichern stuttgart bayern münchen legte den Grundstein für das portugiesische Kolonialreich in Asien.
Though he did not In search of fame and fortune, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan c. En route he discovered what is now known as the Strait of Magellan and became the Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian-born merchant and explorer who took part in early voyages to the New World on behalf of Spain around the late 15th century.
By that time, the Vikings had established settlements in present-day North America as early as 1, A. Henry Hudson made his first voyage west from England in , when he was hired to find a shorter route to Asia from Europe through the Arctic Ocean.
After twice being turned back by ice, Hudson embarked on a third voyage—this time on behalf of the Dutch East India Company—in Francis Drake participated in some of the earliest English slaving voyages to Africa and earned a reputation for his privateering, or piracy, against Spanish ships and possessions.
This Day In History. Exploration of North America The story of North American exploration spans an entire millennium andinvolves a wide array of European powers and uniquely American characters.
Amerigo Vespucci Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian-born merchant and explorer who took part in early voyages to the New World on behalf of Spain around the late 15th century.
Henry Hudson Henry Hudson made his first voyage west from England in , when he was hired to find a shorter route to Asia from Europe through the Arctic Ocean.
Sailing again on December 8, the fleet reached the coast of Natal on Christmas Day. On January 11, , it anchored for five days near the mouth of a small river between Natal and Mozambique, which they called the Rio do Cobre Copper River.
By this time many of the crews were sick with scurvy; the expedition rested a month while the ships were repaired. On March 2 the fleet reached the Island of Mozambique , the inhabitants of which believed the Portuguese to be Muslims like themselves.
Da Gama learned that they traded with Arab merchants and that four Arab vessels laden with gold, jewels, silver, and spices were then in port; he was also told that Prester John , the long-sought Christian ruler, lived in the interior but held many coastal cities.
The Sultan of Mozambique supplied da Gama with two pilots, one of whom deserted when he discovered that the Portuguese were Christians.
The expedition reached Mombasa now in Kenya on April 7 and dropped anchor at Malindi also now in Kenya on April 14, where a Gujarati pilot who knew the route to Calicut, on the southwest coast of India , was taken aboard.
Da Gama failed to conclude a treaty—partly because of the hostility of Muslim merchants and partly because the trumpery presents and cheap trade goods that he had brought, while suited to the West African trade, were hardly in demand in India.
The Portuguese had mistakenly believed the Hindus to be Christians. After tension increased, da Gama left at the end of August, taking with him five or six Hindus so that King Manuel might learn about their customs.
Ignorance and indifference to local knowledge had led da Gama to choose the worst possible time of year for his departure, and he had to sail against the monsoon.
He visited Anjidiv Island near Goa before sailing for Malindi, which he reached on January 8, , after nearly three months crossing the Arabian Sea.
Many of the crew died of scurvy. He himself reached Lisbon on September 9 and made his triumphal entry nine days later, spending the interval mourning his brother Paulo, who had died on Terceira.
Manuel I granted da Gama the title of dom , an annual pension of 1, cruzados, and estates. The profits of this expedition were such that a third fleet was soon fitted out in Lisbon.
The command of this fleet was given to da Gama, who in January received the title of admiral. Da Gama commanded 10 ships, which were in turn supported by two flotillas of five ships each, each flotilla being under the command of one of his relations.
After calling briefly at Mozambique, the Portuguese expedition sailed to Kilwa, in what is now Tanzania. Coasting southern Arabia , da Gama then called at Goa later the focus of Portuguese power in India before proceeding to Cannanore, a port in southwestern India to the north of Calicut, where he lay in wait for Arab shipping.
After several days an Arab ship arrived with merchandise and between and passengers, including women and children.
After seizing the cargo, da Gama is said to have shut up the passengers aboard the captured ship and set it afire, killing all on board.
As a consequence, da Gama has been vilified, and Portuguese trading methods have been associated with terror. However, the episode is related only by late and unreliable sources and may be legendary or at least exaggerated.
After da Gama formed an alliance with the ruler of Cannanore, an enemy of the Zamorin, the fleet sailed to Calicut, with the aim of wrecking its trade and punishing the Zamorin for the favour he had shown to Muslim traders.
Da Gama bombarded the port and seized and massacred 38 hostages. The Portuguese then sailed south to the port of Cochin, with whose ruler an enemy of the Zamorin they formed an alliance.
The expedition set sail from Lisbon on 8 July It followed the route pioneered by earlier explorers along the coast of Africa via Tenerife and the Cape Verde Islands.
After reaching the coast of present-day Sierra Leone , da Gama took a course south into the open ocean, crossing the Equator and seeking the South Atlantic westerlies that Bartolomeu Dias had discovered in With Christmas pending, da Gama and his crew gave the coast they were passing the name Natal , which carried the connotation of "birth of Christ" in Portuguese.
Vasco da Gama spent 2 to 29 March in the vicinity of Mozambique Island. Arab -controlled territory on the East African coast was an integral part of the network of trade in the Indian Ocean.
Fearing the local population would be hostile to Christians, da Gama impersonated a Muslim and gained audience with the Sultan of Mozambique.
With the paltry trade goods he had to offer, the explorer was unable to provide a suitable gift to the ruler. Soon the local populace became suspicious of da Gama and his men.
Forced by a hostile crowd to flee Mozambique, da Gama departed the harbor, firing his cannons into the city in retaliation. In the vicinity of modern Kenya , the expedition resorted to piracy , looting Arab merchant ships that were generally unarmed trading vessels without heavy cannons.
The Portuguese became the first known Europeans to visit the port of Mombasa from 7 to 13 April , but were met with hostility and soon departed.
Vasco da Gama continued north, arriving on 14 April at the friendlier port of Malindi , whose leaders were having a conflict with those of Mombasa.
There the expedition first noted evidence of Indian traders. Da Gama and his crew contracted the services of a pilot who used his knowledge of the monsoon winds to guide the expedition the rest of the way to Calicut , located on the southwest coast of India.
Sources differ over the identity of the pilot, calling him variously a Christian, a Muslim, and a Gujarati. One traditional story describes the pilot as the famous Arab navigator Ibn Majid , but other contemporaneous accounts place Majid elsewhere, and he could not have been near the vicinity at the time.
Vasco da Gama left Malindi for India on 24 April The navigator was received with traditional hospitality, including a grand procession of at least 3, armed Nairs , but an interview with the Zamorin failed to produce any concrete results.
Annoyed by this, da Gama carried a few Nairs and sixteen fishermen mukkuva off with him by force. Vasco da Gama left Calicut on 29 August Eager to set sail for home, he ignored the local knowledge of monsoon wind patterns that were still blowing onshore.
The fleet initially inched north along the Indian coast, and then anchored in at Anjediva island for a spell. They finally struck out for their Indian Ocean crossing on 3 October But with the winter monsoon yet to set in, it was a harrowing journey.
Da Gama saw land again only on 2 January , passing before the coastal Somali city of Mogadishu , then under the influence of the Ajuran Empire in the Horn of Africa.
The fleet did not make a stop, but passing before Mogadishu, the anonymous diarist of the expedition noted that it was a large city with houses of four or five storeys high and big palaces in its center and many mosques with cylindrical minarets.
Thereafter, the sailing was smoother. The diary record of the expedition ends abruptly here. Da Gama and his sickly brother eventually hitched a ride with a Guinea caravel returning to Portugal, but Paulo da Gama died en route.
He eventually took passage on an Azorean caravel and finally arrived in Lisbon on 29 August according to Barros ,  or early September 8th or 18th, according to other sources.
The expedition had exacted a large cost — one ship and over half the men had been lost. It had also failed in its principal mission of securing a commercial treaty with Calicut.
Nonetheless, the spices brought back on the remaining two ships were sold at an enormous profit to the crown. Vasco da Gama was justly celebrated for opening a direct sea route to Asia.
His path would be followed up thereafter by yearly Portuguese India Armadas. The spice trade would prove to be a major asset to the Portuguese royal treasury, and other consequences soon followed.
One significant result was the colonization of Mozambique by the Portuguese Crown. This turned out to be a complicated affair, for Sines still belonged to the Order of Santiago.
The master of the Order, Jorge de Lencastre , might have endorsed the reward — after all, da Gama was a Santiago knight, one of their own, and a close associate of Lencastre himself.
In the meantime, da Gama made do with a substantial hereditary royal pension of , reis. He was awarded the noble title of Dom lord in perpetuity for himself, his siblings and their descendants.
However, Pedro Cabral entered into a conflict with the local Arab merchant guilds, with the result that the Portuguese factory was overrun in a riot and up to 70 Portuguese were killed.
Cabral blamed the Zamorin for the incident and bombarded the city. Thus war broke out between Portugal and Calicut. Vasco da Gama invoked his royal letter to take command of the 4th India Armada , scheduled to set out in , with the explicit aim of taking revenge upon the Zamorin and force him to submit to Portuguese terms.
The heavily armed fleet of fifteen ships and eight hundred men left Lisbon on 12 February The 4th Armada was a veritable da Gama family affair. While the Zamorin was willing to sign a new treaty,  da Gama made a call to the Hindu king to expel all Muslims from Calicut before beginning negotiations, which was turned down.
The Portuguese fleet then bombarded the city for nearly two days from the sea shore, severely damaging the unfortified city.